Voting Methods


  • Amy, Douglas J. 2000. Behind the Ballot Box: A Citizen’s Guide to Voting Systems. Westport: Praeger.
  • Farrell, David M. 2011. Electoral Systems: A Comparative Introduction. London: Red Globe Press.
  • Sosnick, Stephen H. 2014. Which Election System is Best: A Comprehensive Comparison of World Wide Election Systems. CreateSpace Independent Publishing.

United States

  • Amy, Douglas J. 2002. Real Choices / New Voices: How Proportional Representation Elections Could Revitalize American Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Barber, Kathleen L. 2002. A Right to Representation: Proportional Election Systems for the Twenty-First Century. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
  • Bowler, Shaun, Todd Donovan, and David Brockington. 2003. Electoral Reform and Minority Representation: Local Experiments with Alternative Elections. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
  • Mann, Thomas E., Norman J. Ornstein. 2016. It’s Even Worse Than It Looks: How the American Constitutional System Collided with the New Politics of Extremism. New York: Basic Books.
  • Zimmerman, Joseph F., and Wilma Rule. 2000. The U.S. House of Representatives: Reform or Rebuild?. Westport, CT: Praeger.


  • Carstairs, Andrew McLaren. 2012. A Short History of Electoral Systems in Western Europe. London: Routledge.
  • Dalton, Russell J., David M. Farrell, and Ian McAllister. 2013. Political Parties and Democratic Linkage: How Parties Organize Democracy. ‎New York: ‎Oxford University Press.
  • Diamond, Larry, and Marc F. Plattner, eds. 2006. Electoral Systems and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Ezrow, Lawrence. 2010. Linking Citizens and Parties: How Electoral Systems Matter for Political Representation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Grofman, Bernard, Sung-Chull Lee, Edwin A. Winckler, and Brian Woodall, eds. 1999. Elections in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan under the Single Non-Transferable Vote: The Comparative Study of an Embedded Institution. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Grofman, Bernard, and Arend Lijphart, eds. 2003. Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences. New York: Algora.
  • Herron, Erik S., Robert J. Pekkanen, and Matthew S. Shugart, eds. 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Htun, Mala, and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., eds. 2013. Political Science, Electoral Rules, and Democratic Governance. Washington, DC: American Political Science Association. [free PDF]
  • Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. 2009. The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • McDonald, Michael D., and Ian Budge. 2005. Elections, Parties, Democracy: Conferring the Median Mandate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Moser, Robert G., and Ethan Scheiner. 2012. Electoral Systems and Political Context: How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norris, Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Powell, G. Bingham, Jr. 2000. Elections as Instruments of Democracy: Majoritarian and Proportional Visions. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Reilly, Benjamin. 2001. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Robinson, Chris. 2010. Electoral Systems and Voting in Britain: Electoral Systems and Voting in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Rose, Richard, ed. 2000. International Encyclopedia of Elections. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
  • Stephenson, Laura B., John H. Aldrich, and André Blais, eds. 2018. The Many Faces of Strategic Voting: Tactical Behavior in Electoral Systems Around the World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Taagepera, Rein. 2007. Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Thomassen, Jacques, ed. 2014. Elections and Democracy: Representation and Accountability. New York: Oxford University Press.


  • Ahmed, Amel. 2013. Democracy and the Politics of Electoral System Choice: Engineering Electoral Dominance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Blais, André, ed. 2008. To Keep or To Change First Past The Post?: The Politics of Electoral Reform. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Bowler, Shaun, and Todd Donovan. 2013. The Limits of Electoral Reform. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Fournier, Patrick, Henk van der Kolk, R. Kenneth Carty, André Blais, and Jonathan Rose. 2011. When Citizens Decide: Lessons from Citizens’ Assemblies on Electoral Reform. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Gallagher, Michael, and Paul Mitchell, eds. 2008. The Politics of Electoral Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Grofman, Bernard, and Arend Lijphart. 2002. The Evolution of Electoral and Party Systems in the Nordic Countries. New York: Agathon Press.
  • Lundell, Krister. 2010. The Origin of Electoral Systems in the Post-war Era: A Worldwide Approach. New York: Routledge.
  • Pilon, Dennis. 2013. Wrestling with Democracy: Voting Systems as Politics in the Twentieth-Century West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Renwick, Alan. 2010. The Politics of Electoral Reform: Changing the Rules of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Reynolds, Andrew, Ben Reilly, and Andrew Ellis, eds. 2005. Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Stockholm: International IDEA. [free PDF]
  • Shugart, Matthew S., and Rein Taagepera. 2017. Votes from Seats: Logical Models of Electoral Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Scholarly Associations

Scholarly Journals

  • Electoral Studies: “an international journal dedicated to the study of elections and voting in different parts of the world.”
  • Journal of Democracy: “the world’s leading publication on the theory and practice of democracy.”
  • Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties: “aims to publish research of the highest quality on elections, public opinion, participation and political parties. “
  • Representation: “seeks contributions that explore the interface between democratic practice and theory.”

International Organizations